AP chemistry

Topics Covered by AP Chemistry

The Six Big Ideas

Big Idea 1:   Structure of Matter The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangements of atoms. These atoms retain their identity in chemical reactions.

Big Idea 2:   Chemical and Physical Properties Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

Big Idea 3:   Chemical Reactions Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons.

Big Idea 4:   Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Rates Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions.

Big Idea 5:   Thermodynamics and Energy Transfers The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.

Big Idea 6:   Chemical Equilibrium Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

Topics covered in the syllabus are

  • Classification of matter
  • Scientific method
  • Nomenclature and formulas of binary compounds
  • Polyatomic ions and other compounds
  • Determination of atomic masses
  • Mole concept
  • Percent composition
  • Empirical and molecular formula
  • Writing chemical equations and drawn representations
  • Balancing chemical equations
  • Applying mole concept to chemical equations (stoichiometry)
  • Determining limiting reactants, theoretical and percent yield of reactions
  • Electrolytes and properties of water
  • Molarity and preparation of solutions
  • Redox and single replacement reactions
  • Double replacement reactions
  • Combustion reactions
  • Addition reactions
  • Decomposition reactions
  • Precipitation reactions and solubility rules
  • Acid-Base reactions and formation of a salt by titration
  • Balancing redox reactions
  • Simple redox titrations
  • Electron configuration and the Aufbau principle
  • Valence electrons and Lewis dot structures
  • Periodic trends
  • Table arrangement based on electronic properties
  • Properties of light and study of waves
  • Atomic spectra of hydrogen and energy levels
  • Quantum mechanical model
  • Quantum theory and electron orbitals
  • Orbital shape and energies
  • Spectroscopy
  • Lewis Dot structures
  • Resonance structures and formal charge
  • Bond polarity and dipole moments
  • VSEPR models and molecular shape
  • Polarity of molecules
  • Lattice energies
  • Hybridization
  • Molecular orbitals and diagrams
  • Electron configuration and the Aufbau principle
  • Valence electrons and Lewis dot structures
  • Periodic trends
  • Table arrangement based on electronic properties
  • Properties of light and study of waves
  • Atomic spectra of hydrogen and energy levels
  • Quantum mechanical model
  • Quantum theory and electron orbitals
  • Orbital shape and energies
  • Spectroscopy
  • Law of conservation of energy, work, and internal energy
  • Endothermic and exothermic reactions
  • Potential energy diagrams
  • Calorimetry, heat capacity, and specific heat
  • Hess's Law
  • Heat of formation/combustion
  • Bond energies
  • Measurement of gases
  • General gas laws - Boyle, Charles, Combined, and Ideal
  • Dalton's Law of partial pressure
  • Molar volume of gases and stoichiometry
  • Graham's Law
  • Kinetic Molecular Theory
  • Real gases and deviation from ideal gas law
  • Graham's law demonstration
  • Law of conservation of energy, work, and internal energy
  • Endothermic and exothermic reactions
  • Potential energy diagrams
  • Calorimetry, heat capacity, and specific heat
  • Hess's Law
  • Heat of formation/combustion
  • Bond energies
  • Structure and bonding
  • Metals, network, and molecular
  • Ionic, hydrogen, London, van der Waals
  • Vapor pressure and changes in state
  • Heating and cooling curves
  • Composition of solutions
  • Colloids and suspensions
  • Separation techniques
  • Effect on biological systems
  • Rates of reactions
  • Factors that affect rates of reactions/ collision theory
  • Reaction Pathways
  • Rate equation determination
  • Rate constants
  • Mechanisms
  • Method of initial rates
  • Integrated rate laws
  • Activation energy and Boltzmann distribution
  • Characteristics and conditions of chemical equilibrium
  • Equilibrium expression derived from rates
  • Factors that affect equilibrium
  • Le Chatelier's principle
  • The equilibrium constant
  • Solving equilibrium problems
  • Definition and nature of acids and bases
  • Kw and the pH scale
  • pH of strong and weak acids and bases
  • Polyprotic acids
  • pH of salts
  • Structure of Acids and Bases
  • Characteristics and capacity of buffers
  • Titrations and pH curves
  • Choosing Acid-Base Indicators
  • pH and solubility
  • Ksp Calculations and Solubility Product
  • Laws of thermodynamics
  • Spontaneous process and entropy
  • Spontaneity, enthalpy, and free energy
  • Free energy
  • Free energy and equilibrium
  • Rate and Spontaneity
  • Balancing redox equations
  • Electrochemical cells and voltage
  • The Nernst equation
  • Spontaneous and non-spontaneous equations
  • Chemical applications
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