AP chemistry

Topics Covered by AP Chemistry

AP chemistry past year FRQs

The Six Big Ideas

Big Idea 1:   Structure of Matter The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangements of atoms. These atoms retain their identity in chemical reactions.

Big Idea 2:   Chemical and Physical Properties Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

Big Idea 3:   Chemical Reactions Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons.

Big Idea 4:   Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Rates Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions.

Big Idea 5:   Thermodynamics and Energy Transfers The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.

Big Idea 6:   Chemical Equilibrium Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

Topics covered in the syllabus are

1. Chemical Foundation Scientific Method, Units of Measurement, Uncertainty in Measurements, Significant Figures and Calculations, Dimensional Analysis, Temperature, Classification of Matter. 3 Hours
2. Atoms, Molecule and Ions. Fundamental Chemical Laws, Dalton's Atomic Theory, Atomic Structure, Early Atomic Experiments and Models, Molecules and Ions, Naming of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. 5 Hours
3. Stoichiometry. Mole Concept, Percent composition of Compounds, Determination of Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula, Chemical Equation, Balancing of Chemical Equation, Limiting Reactant, Stoichiometric Calculations. 5 Hours
4. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Nature of Aqueous Solution, Types of Chemical Reactions, Precipitation Reactions, Acid- base Reactions, Oxidation- Reduction Reactions, Balancing of Redox Reaction, Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions. 4 Hours
5. Gases Pressure, Gas Laws of Boyles, Charles and Avogadro, Ideal Gas Law, Gas Stoichiometry, Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure, The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases, Effusion and Diffusion, Real Gases 6 Hours
6. Thermochemistry The Nature of Energy, Enthalpy and Calorimetry, Hess's law, Standard Enthalpy of Formation 5 Hours
7. Atomic Structure and Periodicity Electromagnetic radiation, The Nature of Matter, The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen , The Bohr's Model, The Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom, Quantum Numbers, Orbital Shape and Energies, Electron Spin and The Pauli's Principle, The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table, Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties, The Properties of a group. 5 Hours
8. Bonding: General Concept Types of Chemical Bonding, Electrogegativity, Bond Polarity and Dipole Moment, Ions: Electron Cofiguration and Sizes, Partial Ionic Character in Covalent Bond, Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions, Lewis Structure, Exceptions to the Octet Rule, Resonance, VSEPR Theory. 5 Hours
9. Covalent Bonding Hybridization, The Molecular Orbital Model, Photoelectron Spectroscopy 5 Hours
10. Liquids and Solids Intermolecular forces, The Liquid State, Structure and Bonding in Metals, Types of Solids ( Molecular,Metallic, Ionic, Network), Vapour Pressure and Change in State, Phase Diagram 4 Hours
11. Properties of Solution Solution Compound, The Energies of Solution Formation, Factors Affecting Solubility, The Vapour Pressure of Solutions, Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depoession, Osmotic Pressure, Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solution, Crlloids 4 Hours
12. Chemical Kinetics Reaction Rates, Rate law Integrated Rate Law , Reaction Mechanism, Order of Reaction, Half Life,Catalyst 5 Hours
13. Chemical Equilibrium The Equilibrium Conditions , The Equilibrium Constant, Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures, Heterogeneous Equilibria, Application of the Equilibrium Constant, Solving Equilibrium Problems. 5 Hours
14. Acids and Bases The Nature of Acid and Base, Acid Strength, The pH Scale, Calculation of pH of Strong Acid and Weak Acid Solution, pH of Strong Acid and Weak Base, Polyprotic Acid, Acid-Base Properties of Salts, The Effect of Structure on Acid - Base Properties, The Lewis Acid Base Model 5 Hours
15. Acid- Base Equilibria Solution of Acid or Bases Containing a Common Ion, Buffer Solution, Buffering Capacity, Titration and pH Curves, Acid- Base Indicators 6 Hours
16. Solubility and Complex Ion Equilibria Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product, Precipitation and Quantitative Analysis, Equilibria Involving Complex Ions 3 Hours
17. Spontaneity, Entropy and Free Energy. Spontaneous Processes and Entropy, Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics, The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity, Free Energy, Entropy Changes in Chemical Reaction, Free Energy and Chemical Reactions, The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure, Free Energy and Equilibrium, Free Energy and Work 5 Hours
18. Electrochemistry Balancing Redox Reaction, Galvanic Cell, Standard Reduction Potential, Cell Potential, Electrical Work and Free Energy, Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration, Batteries, Corrosion, Electrolyte, Commercial Electrolytic Processes. 6 Hours
19. The Nucleus Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay, Nuclear Transformation, Detection and Uses of Radioactivity, The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay, Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion, Effect of Radiation. 2 Hours
Revision and Practice or FRQs and MCQs 15 Hours